David Reid (Georges Riverkeeper) has co-authored an article entitled, "Metal(loid) accumulation in the leaves of the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina): Assessment of robust sampling requirements and potential use as a bioindicator" which has been recently published by Elsevier in Environmental Research.
Abstract: This study assessed the appropriate sampling design required for quantifying variability in metal accumulation in the leaf tissues of A. marina, a dominant mangrove inhabiting Australian estuaries, by applying a hierarchical nested sampling design to sample mangroves at various levels of biological and spatial hierarchies (leaf, branch, tree, site). It was revealed that most variation in metal accumulation occurred among trees and branches, with insignificant variation between sites and among leaves. We also examined the accumulation of metal (loid)s in the leaf tissues collected from six locations across the Georges River estuary in southern Sydney, which differ in metal contamination history. Prospect Creek and Salt Pan Creek were the most contaminated locations, which exceeded sediment quality guideline values for Cu (66.71 ± 2.18 μg/g), Zn (317.14 ± 46.14 μg/g) and Pb (81.02 ± 2.79 μg/g). All metal(loid) concentrations in leaf tissues were much lower than their concentrations in sediment, but essential metals exhibited greater mobility. Out of 10 metal(loid)s, Mn, Co and Pb in leaves showed linear relationships (R2 = 0.28–0.47) with sediment, indicating that mangrove leaves may be used as a bioindicator of environmental loads for these metals.
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